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Category Archives: SQL Server

What follows is a ‘beginner’s guide’ to SQL 2016 licensing. SQL is one of the more complex volume licensing structures and as such the guide may not touch on all the aspects you need to consider. I am focussing here on the basic requirements when purchasing Standard or Enterprise.

SQL is licensed either ‘Server + CAL’ or ‘per core’. When licensed ‘Server + CAL’ you will need to purchase a license per server and then a CAL for every device/user connecting to the server. Licensing ‘per core’ does away with the need to purchase CALs, allowing for unlimited connections. This option usually comes into play when it is more cost effective, say 40+ devices connecting or if the SQL instance is web facing (innumerable devices/users). These options will be explained further below.

The very first decision you need to make is whether you plan/need to run Enterprise or Standard. See the following comparison guide:
Your answer here may restrict the licensing options available to you, so it is key you know which edition you want before moving forward.

If you require the Standard edition – you should next ask yourself the question ‘How many devices or users are going to connect to the server?’ Special care should be taken to understand Microsoft’s definition of ‘Multiplexing’ – which boils down to this rule of thumb – ‘If you unplugged the server in question, how many devices/users would be affected?’ It does not matter how they are connecting, as such. When purchasing ‘Server + CAL’ you need only purchase one SQL license per server. However, if the device/user count is greater than 40 (rule of thumb) then it is worth exploring the ‘per core’ option, as it may be more cost effective. You would need to purchase enough licenses to cover the total physical core count, or the assigned v-core count if running in a VOSE. Note that every license covers 2 cores, and there is a 4-core minimum in play whether you are running ‘on the tin’ or in a VOSE. Micromail can offer comparative pricing in most cases, please contact me ( to discuss.

If you require Enterprise you will be licensing ‘per core’ by default. Your only choice here is whether you plan to run ‘on the tin’, or in VOSE. When you license all the physical cores with Software Assurance you can spin up an unlimited amount of SQL VOSE. If you wish, you can simply choose to run on individual VOSE, where you purchase enough licenses to cover the assigned v-cores in each case.

Software Assurance is optional depending on the Agreement type you are purchasing under, and runs for a certain term, again depending on the Agreement type in play. While active it gives the customer access to any new versions on release as well as a set of additional features, such as License Mobility and Failover.

Please contact me if you have any questions.

Seán Deasy

So your new server is up and running and you have of course correctly licensed it with Windows Server 2012. Now you want to get on with the real task, installing SQL Server 2012. But what about the pesky licensing for SQL itself, well the licensing surrounding SQL Server can seem complicated initially but the basics are relatively easy to get a handle on.

First of all you’ll need to purchase the server license itself. You can choose between three options here*, depending on what you need to get done.

Starting at the top end, SQL Server 2012 Enterprise is what would be required for Mission Critical and Tier 1 applications, high availability and Data Warehousing. Click here for more information.
The ‘middle ground’ offering is new with the 2012 release – SQL Server 2012 Business Intelligence (BI). BI edition offers the full suite of powerful BI capabilities in SQL Server 2012, including PowerPivot and Crescent. One major focus of this edition is empowering end users with BI functionality. This will be ideal for projects that need advanced BI capabilities but don’t require the full OLTP performance and scalability of Enterprise Edition. It allows for ‘Managed self-service BI’ and scalable analytics. Click here for more information.

SQL Server 2012 Standard is the entry level SQL license for small to medium network scenarios. Standard edition is designed for departmental databases that require only basic database functionality and basic BI functionality. Click here for more information.

Standard suits most SMB scenarios – that said, the linked resources above should have all the information you need to decide which is right for your set-up.

CALs and Cores

As with the Windows Server licensing you will also need to license each user or device connecting to the server in question. Devices and Users are licensed by purchasing Client Access Licenses, or CALs. The type of CAL needed is usually decided by which is more cost effective, i.e. do you have more users or devices? There is however another option which allows unlimited users/devices – this is known as the ‘per core’ option.

Decisions, decisions…

As outlined above there are two distinct ways to license the CAL side of things. You can license the server and then each device or user connecting to it OR purchase a ‘per core’ SQL license. The ‘per core’ option licenses the server and allows an unlimited amount of devices or users to connect to it. If you go for the ‘per core’ model, you will need to license a minimum of 4 Cores per processor. The good news is that each license includes 2 cores, so your minimum purchase here will be 2 licenses. There is a ‘Core Factor’ that needs to be considered but in general it is simply 1:1. Learn more about the ‘Core Factor’ (PDF).

The decision (between CAL and Core model) may be influenced by the size of your network or by the role assigned to the SQL Server – for example, a web facing server with a limitless or unknown amount of devices and users connecting. If all this wasn’t complicated enough – Microsoft have restricted the CAL/Core option to certain SQL 2012 editions. So once you have an idea which model fits best you now have to weigh the answer against the available editions. To this end, SQL Standard 2012 can be licensed by one or other of these methods. SQL BI 2012 can only be licensed Server and CAL, while SQL Enterprise 2012 can only be licensed ‘per core’. So as you can see, your choice of SQL 2012 edition may be affected by both functionality and ‘target group size’. Here’s a handy chart that breaks down the edition functionality and the licensing options available for each:

SQL 2012 Editions Comparision

SQL 2012 Editions

Virtualisation Considerations
A common consideration when licensing SQL is the virtual environment you might be planning. In short you will need to license each individual VM or license all physical servers for Enterprise edition. Adding Software Assurance in both cases here will enable License Mobility. License Mobility is necessary if you need to re-assign the license within a 90 day timeframe, e.g. in a server farm.

This blog entry is meant as a beginners’ guide to licensing SQL as you can see, there are many nuances that can surface depending on the licensing scenario. Feel free to contact me if you have any queries or suggestions. Micromail is a Microsoft Gold Partner for Volume Licensing and provide licensing consultancy for SQL Server.

Sean Deasy.

*Excluding SQL Express, a product free-to-download – aimed at very small user scenario.